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Key references:

21th century skills

A. Ways of thinking

  • Creativity and innovation
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Decision Making
  • Learning to Learn and Metacognition 


Critical thinking, problem solving and decision making

Learning to learn and Metacognition

B. Ways of Working 

  • Communication 
  • Collaboration and Teamwork 


Collaboration and Teamwork

C. Tools for working

  • Information Literacy 
  • ICT Literacy 

Information literacy

ICT literacy

D. Living in the world

  • Citizenship, Global and Local 
  • Life and Career

Citizenship, Global and Local

  • Bennett, W. L., Wells, C., & Rank, A. (2009). Young citizens and civic learning: two paradigms of citizenship in the digital age. Citizenship Studies, 13(2), 105-120.
  • Castells, M. & Himanen, P. (2002) The Information Society and the Welfare State: The Finnish Model. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Castells, M (2009).Communication power. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cassell, J., Huffaker, D., Tversky, D., & Ferriman, K. (2006). The language of online leadership: Gender and youth engagement on the Internet. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 436. (ONLINE reference, ask library)
  • Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and participation at age fourteen. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), 100.
  • Jenkins, H., & Deuze, M. (2008). Convergence culture. CONVERGENCE-LONDON-, 14(1), 5.
  • Loader, B. D. (Ed.). (2007). Young citizens in the digital age: Political engagement, young people and new media. Routledge. (check library and google books etc)
  • Silberman, S. (1999). Just Say Nokia. Wired. Issue 7.09 | Sep 1999:

Life and career

Digital divide(s)

  • Avgerou, C. (2008). Information systems in developing countries: a critical research review. Journal of information Technology, 23(3), 133-146.
  • Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2006). Gaps and bits: Conceptualizing measurements for digital divide/s. The Information Society, 22(5), 269-278.
  • Cooper, J., & Weaver, K. D. (2003). Gender and computers: Understanding the digital divide. Routledge. (chceck llibrary)
  • Ford, M., & Leinonen, T. (2009). MobilED–Mobile tools and services platform for formal and informal learning. Mobile Learning, 195.
  • Galperin, H., & Mariscal, J. (Eds.). (2007). Digital poverty [electronic resource]: Latin American and Caribbean perspectives. IDRC. Ebsco collection (check library)
  • Hargittai, E., & Hinnant, A. (2008). Digital inequality differences in young adults' use of the internet. Communication Research, 35(5), 602-621.
  • Kumar, A., Tewari, A., Shroff, G., Chittamuru, D., Kam, M., & Canny, J. (2010, April). An exploratory study of unsupervised mobile learning in rural India. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 743-752). ACM.
  • Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2007). Gradations in digital inclusion: children, young people and the digital divide. New media & society, 9(4), 671-696.
  • Marshall, S., Taylor, W., & Yu, X. H. (Eds.). (2003). Closing the digital divide: Transforming regional economies and communities with information technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. Ebsco collection (check library)
  • Mossberger, Karen, Carolina J. Tolbert, and Michele Gilbert. (2006). Race, Place, and Information Technology (IT). Urban Affairs Review. 41:583-620. retrieved from
  • Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. the MIT Press. (check library)
  • Warschauer, M. (2003). Dissecting the" digital divide": A case study in Egypt. The Information Society, 19(4), 297-304.


Design papers

Goodyear, P., & Dimitriadis, Y. (2013). In medias res: reframing design for learning. Research in Learning Technology, 21.

Dimitriadis, Y., & Goodyear, P. (2013). Forward-oriented design for learning: illustrating the approach. Research in Learning Technology, 21.

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