A waveguide for magnetosonic waves is formed around the F-layer (about 200 km) altitude of maximum ionospheric electron density (Dessler, 1958; Greifinger and Greifinger, 1968; Althouse and Davis, 1978; Fujita, 1987). It has a great influence in ground-based observations Pc1 pulsations: the field line guidance of the waves stops in the ionosphere, and the waves spread around in the waveguide.
- Althouse, E. L. and J. R. Davis, Five-station observations of pc-1 micropulsation propagation, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 132-144, 1978.
- Dessler, A. J., The propagation velocity of worldwide sudden commencements of magnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 63, 507, 1958.
- Fujita, S., Duct propagation of a short-period hydromagnetic wave based on the international reference ionosphere model, Planet. Space Sci., 35, 91-103, 1987.
- Greifinger, C. and P. S. Greifinger, Theory of hydromagnetic propagation in the ionospheric waveguide, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 7473, 1968.